Tag constitution


The Constitution: Atlanta, GA

TUESday, October 20, 1903

Was Changed to Whitehall Place by Council Yesterday.

The name of Smith street, from Whitehall street to Glenn street, was Monday afternoon changed by council to Whitehall place and if Mayor Howell gives his approval to the measure it will become a law.

Forrest Adair, for the real estate men, spoke against the change of name, but the members of the body believed that the wishes of the residents of the street should be regarded.

The report of the street committee, which was favorable in changing the name of Smith street to Whitehall place, having been read, the privilege of the floor was extended to Forrest Adair, who spoke against the custom of changing the names of the streets. A number of real estate men and attorneys were present.

Mr. Adair said:

“Before final action is taken on the report of the street committee to change the name of Smith street to Whitehall place I desire to present certain facts taken from the record in reference to the custom or habit into which the council has fallen of making such changes.

“In doing this I wish to distinctly disclaim any desire to personally oppose any of the residents of that street. I am interested in the ownership of property on the street, and will aid them in any movement that may lead to its improvement.

“I have prepared from the records a list which I herewith present to you, showing that four hundred and forty-seven changes have been made in the names of streets, several of them having borne as many as eight different names.

“This causes serious trouble and inconvenience to the real estate agents, attorneys and to the property owners themselves in trading titles when real estate is sold, it being well nigh impossible to convince one from the record of the correct identity of the lot so variously described.

“My firm has just sold a piece of property on the corner of Walton street and Tabernacle place, and the deed of the present owner describes it as being on the corner of Walton and Harris streets, while the next deed in the chain of title describes it as being on the corner of Foundry street. I have actually known of titles being rejected on account of the doubt as to identity.

“How many of you gentlemen of the city council can now direct a stranger to the six Peachtree streets? We have the one peerless Peachtree, and in addition, West Peachtree, Peachtree place, West Peachtree place, Peachtree road and East Peachtree terrace, which, however, has recently been changed back to its original name, because no one can find it.

“Smith, the street now under consideraytion, has been variously known as Stephen, South, Simpson, Newman and Gate City.

Named for a Pioneer.

“This street was named for an honored pioneer citizen, Mr. Windsor Smith, who, in the ante-vellum days, together with the Colliers, Jones, Loyd, Calhoun, Joseph Thompson, Richard Peters and others, were by their brain, industry and enterprise helping Marthasville to discard her swaddling clothes, thereby making this great city of Atlanta a possibility.

“In 1861, just as the darkness and gloom of a civil war appeared on the horizon, Mr. Smith died, and ten years later his friends and neighbors, who knew of his value and worth to the community, paid to his memory a tribute by giving one of the cities arteries of trade his name.

“The others were in like manner honored by those who thought it fitting to in some way carry down to after generations the names of the fathers of our beloved city.

“One by one, and for no good reason, in order to gratify the whim of the residents, whose minds are as vacillating as the winds, you have ruthlessly taken away this honor and shattered the only monuments to many of them.

“Calhoun was changed to Piedmont and absolutely no benefit has been derived therefrom.

“Loyd to Central avenue, and lots on that street bring no more per front foot.

“Collins to Courtland, and yet Maison de Joie still flourish furnishing superior facilities for our sons to prostitute their persons, debauch their souls and cut each other down in midnight drunken brawls.

“You robbed Joseph Thompson, the father of Mrs. Richard Peters, Mrs. Thomas M. Clarke, Joseph and Edgar Thompson, of the tribute paid to him because, by your permissions, the street had become disreputable.

“A rose by any other name would smell as sweet,” and Madison avenue today with its cess pools and slimy sewers of men’s passions, its supurating sores, its reeking ulcers on the social body, emits its stinking odors as high toward the heavens as Thompson street ever did.

Clean the Streets.

“If our only monuments of marble and bronze, erected to Hill and Grady, were to become damaged or discolored, would you change their names or cleanse them? In all respect to you gentlemen, I say that your duty was to remove the stain from the streets rather than efface the tribute to the memory of the grand men who had been thus honored.

“In West End, near my home, are two streets named for the two heroes, Lee and Gordon, and on the north side, Forrest avenue, named for the recklessly valiant genius, whose name I am proud to bear.

“A councilman who would even suggest a change of these names would bring down upon himself the condemnation of his constituents, and the resolution if read in this chamber would be drowned with hisses.

“The names of these heroes are reverenced by us because they led in the fight for principles and for a cause we love and yet I say to you that in the battle of building up our city and its enterprises, Thompson, Calhoun, Colliers, Smith, Peters and others fought just as valiantly, ever ready to lay upon the altar their labor, their fortunes or their lives.

“I submit that aside from the legal authority with which you may be clothed, viewing this matter in its broader sense of right and justice, you really have no right to make such changes, and I apeal to you in behalf of the families of these pioneers who did more for our city than any man who lives today and in behalf of the business men and citizens at large, to put a stop to this absolutely unnecessary and confusing custom of changing the names of streets.”

Councilman Winn, who presented the resolution changing the name of Smith street, stated that he had done so because the residents of the thoroughfare had requested him to have the name changed.

The report of the street committee was adopted and the name of Smith street from Whitehall to Glenn streets, will therefore be known in the future as Whitehall place if the mayor approves.


The Constitution - October 17, 1903 - p7 - courtesy of Footnote.com

The Constitution: Atlanta, GA

Saturday, October 17, 1903

Startling State of Affairs Brought to Attention of Councilmen.

Evidence of Proposed Change in Name of Smith Street, Which Is Favorably Recommended by Street Committee.

The fact that more than 225 streets of Atlanta have had from two to eight names, resulting in confusion and trouble to the real estate agents and the attorneys, was brought to the attention of the street committee of council, of which Alderman Terry is chairman, yesterday afternoon by Forrest Adair, who introduced this evidence in opposing the proposed change in name of Smith street to Whitehall place.

Petitions from fifty-eight members of the bar and from twenty-one real estate dealers were presented to the committee by Mr. Adair at the same time he offered a list of those streets whose names have been changed.

Notwithstanding the statements of Mr. Adair and the petition from attorneys and real estate men the committee decided to again recommend that the name of Smith street be changed. The matter now goes to council, where it will be acted upon during the session next Monday afternoon. Residents of the street desire the change in name.

In opposing the proposed change in the name of the street Mr. Adair state that in many instances titles had become so confused as a result of the constant change in the names of streets that parties now claim land that is in no manner described by their deeds.

Parties who desired to sell their land and those who desired borrowing money on their property often found it impossible to attain these ends because of the changes that had been made in the names of the streets. In addition to this, he said, there is no index to the records of the city, and as a consequence it is with much difficulty that the identity of the present streets is established.

Changes in Street Names

The list presented by Mr. Adair, showing the changes in the names of about 225 streets, is as follows:

Abbott street, formerly D’Alvigny street.

North avenue, formerly Emma street.

Lindsay street, formerly Norrall street.

Drew street, formerly Oliver street.

English avenue, formerly Milledge avenue, Riley street.

Raine avenue, formerly Franklin street.

Julian street, formerly Jackson street.

Travis street, Wilson street.

Elm street, formerly Goddard street, Eisle street.

Chestnut street, formerly Travis street.

Lucile avenue, formerly Porter avenue, Pearl street.

Oak street, formerly Amos street.

Rossmer street, formerly Alexander street.

Culberson street, formerly Pearl street.

Gordon street, formerly Villa Rica road.

Oglethorpe avenue, formerly Baugh street.

Grady place, formerly Jean street.

Whitehall street, formerly Railroad avenue, Peachtree street.

McPherson avenue, formerly Murphy street.

Mitchell street, formerly Gray street, Stockton street.

Parsons street, formerly South street.

Fair street, formerly Stephens street, Holcombe street.

Boaz street, formerly Bowie street.

Brown street, formerly Broomhead street.

Ficken street, formerly Battle street.

Tyler street, formerly Henry street.

Thurmond street, formerly Spencer street, Turman, Brickyard street.

Carter street, formerly Jack, Jett and Caster streets.

Hunter street, formerly Mayson & Turner’s ferry road, Battle Hill avenue.

Ashby street, formerly fairground street.

Granger street, formerly Herbert street.

Sunset avenue, formerly Arthur street, Elm street.

Burckel street, formerly Beasel street.

Humphries street, formerly Sumter street.

Smith street, formerly Gate City street.

Ira street, formerly Crowell street, Haven street.

Stewart avenue, formerly Vine, Humphries, Kreis streets, New Whitehall road, Ocmulgee.

Hobson avenue, formerly Philips street.

Cherry street, formerly Mathews street.

Evans street, formerly Blanche, Garner streets.

Benjamin street, formerly James street.

West End avenue, formerly Thrasher street.

Park street, formerly Salter street.

Georgia avenue, formerly Andrews, Bass, Anderson, Sharp streets.

Dodd avenue, formerly Dora avenue, Dodd street.

Love street, formerly Lane street.

Atlanta avenue, formerly Gardner Park avenue, Cottingham, Harden, and Montgomery streets, Benning.

Ormond street, formerly Orman, Ormewood streets.

Doane street, formerly Davis, Dorne, Daniel streets.

Formwalt street, formerly Pulliam, Fourteenth streets.

Pryor street, formerly Depot streets, Line street.

Central avenue, formerly Bass, Loyd, Lott streets.

Pulliam street, formerly Sullivan street, Loyd streets.

Washington street, formerly Collins street.

Capitol avenue, formerly McDonough street.

Sixth street, formerly Seventh street.

Fifth street, formerly Sixth, Moore and Hill streets.

Spring street, formerly Pear street.

Fourth street, formerly Keith street.

Marietta street, formerly Montgomery, Ferry road, Payne street.

Tifton street, formerly South street.

Berne street, formerly Little Switzerland ave.

Ormewood avenue, formerly Park avenue.

Cloverdale street, formerly Robinson avenue.

Rawlins street, formerly Herren, Dora streets.

McCreary street, formerly McCrary street.

University avenue, formerly South street or avenue, Oakland avenue.

Ridge street, formerly East Pryor and McDaniel streets.

McDonough street, formerly Ridge avenue.

Fortress avenue, formerly Tudor street.

Crew street, formerly Morris avenue, Ann street, South avenue.

Pavillion street, formerly Anderson street.

Bass street, formerly Love street.

South avenue, formerly George street.

Kent street, formerly New street.

Park avenue, formerly George street.

Austin avenue, formerly Moreland avenue.

Lawshe street, formerly Dallas street.

Emerson street, formerly Sycamore street.

Meredith street, formerly May street.

Woodward avenue, formerly Chatham street and Jones.

Kolb street, formerly Old Flat Shoals road.

New Flat Shoals road, formerly Glynn, Glenn streets.

Wylie street, formerly Tennelle, Wyly, Lee, Hulsey street, Flat Shoals road.

Marcus street, formerly Wallace street.

Kirkwood avenue, formerly Waterhouse street.

Harold street, formerly Jefferson street.

Gaskell street, formerly Elswald, East Hunter streets.

Boulevard Factory street, formerly Borne, Seavy streets.

Cornelia streets, formerly Lane, Love streets.

Ella street, formerly Ellner, Ellen streets.

Gunby street, formerly Wilson street.

Berean avenue, formerly Mills, Langford, Badger streets.

Powell street, formerly Cameron avenue, Borne street.

Estoria street, formerly New street.

South Delta place, formerly Oak, Lee, Wylie, Hulsey streets.

Williams mill road, formerly Distillery, Durand, Decatur roads.

Copenhill avenue, formerly Haygood avenue.

Lake avenue, formerly Forrest avenue, Forrest street, Decatur turnpike.

Euclid avenue, formerly Turnpike road, Atlanta and Stone Mountain pike road.

Augusta avenue, formerly Ponce de Leon avenue, Love street.

Smith street, formerly Stephens, South, Simpson, Gate City, Newman streets.

McDaniel street, formerly McDonough street.

Windsor street, formerly McDonough, Weser, Nelson streets.

East avenue, formerly Morris street.

Kendall street, formerly Magnum, Mayson, Morgan streets.

Shelton street, formerly Mayson street, Shelton alley.

Highland avenue, formerly east Harris street, East Hightower avenue.

Houston street, formerly Randolph street.

Ashland avenue, formerly General Gordon, Gordon avenue.

Auburn avenue, formerly Wheat street.

Edgewood avenue, formerly Foster, Forest streets.

Gospero street, formerly Gospero, Glaspero streets.

Randolph street, formerly Calloway street, Martins alley.

Fortune street, formerly Fortress, Fontaine streets.

Sampson street, formerly Simpson, Fontaine streets.

Krog street, formerly Wallace street.

Waddell street, formerly Wolfes avenue.

Hale street, formerly Joel Hurt, Oglethorpe streets.

Nelson street, formerly Bridge street.

Walker street, formerly Hayden, Collier, New Whitehall streets.

Bradberry street, formerly Wilkins alley.

Peters street, formerly Old Whitehall street, Newman.

Tattnall, formerly Nelson Ferry road, Trebussey street.

Larkin street, formerly Davis street.

Whitehall street, formerly Mitchell, Franklin streets.

Orange street, formerly Quarry street, Cozarts alley.

Rawson street, formerly High street, Faiths alley.

Richardson street, formerly Henry, Richmond streets.

Crumley street, formerly Connalley street, Mobbs alley.

Gregg street, formerly Brown’s alley.

Hood street, formerly Windsor street.

Spruce street, formerly Magazine street.

Foundry street, formerly Mechanic, King streets.

Magnolia street, formerly Magnum, Gabbott, Magazine, Foundry and West Cain streets.

Rhodes street, formerly Richards street.

Hunter street, formerly Green, Greer, Glenn and Cobb streets

Vine street, formerly Price, Erin streets.

Maple street, formerly Porter, Proctor, Loyd, Rock, Love, Howe, Law, Back streets.

Davis street, formerly Chattahoochee, Larkin, Rock, Delay, Front streets.

Elliott street, formerly Elbert, Ellis, Fowler streets.

Haynes street, formerly Manning, Harris, Booths alley, Hayden street, Markham and Stewart streets.

High street, formerly East Parsons street.

Chapel street, formerly Racetrack, Atherson, Greensferry road.

Bartow street, formerly Foundry alley.

Forsyth street, formerly Wadley, Gilber streets.

Broad street, formerly Market, Bridge street.

Harris street, formerly Howard street.

Baltimore place, formerly Hunnicutt avenue.

Price street, formerly Jones street.

Mills street, formerly Hunnicutt street.

Powers street, formerly Tannery street.

Fowler street, formerly Fulton street.

Orme street, formerly Eliza street.

Walnut street, formerly Green street.

Simpson street, formerly Henry street.

Henry street, formerly Ella, Tyler, Ellaby, Rock streets.

Rock street, formerly Beck, Racetrack streets.

Mayes street, formerly Delay, Brickyard, Doray streets.

Decatur street, formerly Marietta, Pearce, Shipley streets.

Wall street, formerly Railroad street.

Waverly place, formerly New street.

Trinity avenue, formerly Peters street.

Brotherton street, formerly Branch alley.

Capitol place, formerly Crew street.

Spencer avenue, formerly Thompson street, Madison avenue.

Peachtree street, formerly Whitehall street.

Capitol square, formerly Mitchell street.

Poplar street, formerly Grubb street.

Luckie street, formerly Grubb, Miller streets.

Earl street, formerly Harris, Latimer streets.

Warren place, formerly Perkins, Barnes streets.

Gilmer street, formerly Taylor, Filmore streets.

Central place, formerly Butler street.

Courtland avenue, formerly Collins street.

Piedmont avenue, formerly Calhoun, Catherine streets.

Frazier street, formerly Cravens alley.

King street, formerly Foundry street.

Moore street, formerly Henry, Haynes, Pine streets.

Bell street, formerly Hill street.

Eugenia street, formerly Clarks street.

Pine street, formerly Line street.

Currier street, formerly Spring street.

Forrest avenue, formerly Oslin, Austin, Dorsey streets.

West Peachtree street, formerly Luckie, Dahlonega streets, Payne alley.

Alexander street, formerly Tanyard, Clark, Cedar, Peters streets.

Peachtree street, formerly Ivy, Oak streets.

Butler street, formerly Ripley street.

Edgewood avenue, formerly Foster, Trout, Pitts, Line streets.

Auburn avenue, formerly Wheat street.

Bell street, formerly Valentine street.

Vernon place, formerly Chestnut street.

Tanner street, formerly Pratt, Fair streets.

College street, formerly Coca-Cola place.

Armstrong street, formerly Walnut, Jenkins streets.

Angler avenue, formerly Brumby, Nolan streets.

Rice street, formerly Spring street.

Chestnut avenue, formerly East avenue, Morris street.

Nutting street, formerly Pearl street.

Jackson street, formerly North, Randolph, Chase, Antoinette, Julian streets.

Boulevard, formerly Rolling Mill, Burnham. Jefferson, Foundry streets, East, Pittman avenues. Borne, Factory streets.

Eighth street, formerly Walker street.

Ponce de Leon avenue, formerly Ponce de Leon circle.

Burnham road, formerly Pittman avenue, Rolling Mill street.

North avenue, formerly Peters, Lane, Johnson, Emma, Holmes streets.

Linden avenue, formerly Fulton, Ravine, Mayer, Cox streets.

Merretts avenue, formerly Dairy, Mills, Glazier streets.

Oakland avenue, formerly Elmore, Gullatt, Stonewall streets.

Yonge street, formerly Krogs, New street.

Fitzgerald street, formerly Goodhue street.

Howell street, formerly Buices, Buses alley, Bass street, Howland avenue.

Cain street, formerly Willoughby street.

Fort street, formerly Tanyard, Wooding streets.

Hilliard street, formerly Floyd, Loyd, Boyd, Young, Washington, Randolph, Packard, Madison streets.

Hogue street, formerly Pegg street.

Glennwood avenue, Glynwood avenue.

Nemo street, formerly Orleans street.

Milledge avenue, Hansell, Dabnev street.

Cherokee avenue, formerly Thomas street.

Loomis avenue, formerly Loomis (…)

Gartwell street, formerly Chamberlin (…)

Horton street, formerly Houghton street.

George street, formerly Gray street.

Forsyth street, formerly Gilbert, Wadley streets.

Columbus avenue, formerly Mule street.

West avenue, formerly Rhodes street.

Carnegie place, formerly Church street.

East Peachtree terrace, formerly Powers street.

Bynum street, formerly Parks street.

Newport avenue, formerly Milledge avenue.

D’Alvigny street, formerly Abbott street.

Latimore street, West Baker street.

Nutting street, formerly Pearl street.



The Constitution: Atlanta, GA – Sunday, April 19, 1896

Nearly Everybody, Young and Old, Rich and Poor, Is Riding Nowadays.

When Atlanta’s first big exposition was in progress fifteen years ago a spinster school teacher, tall and slender and elderly, was “seeing the sights” with her sister. She came from a little settlement hidden away in the mountains of Rabun county, and it was her first visit to a big city. The cotton exposition contained many marvels which excited her wonder, and she frequently expressed her surprise in the crude parlance of a mountaineer.

“Well, I’ll swow, Mandy,” she said on more than one occasion, “what will these city folks do next?”

Her greatest surprise-perhaps it would be fair to say-her greatest shock, occurred on the last day of her visit. The high bicycle was a new thing in Georgia at that time and its appearance on the streets was watched with interest by everyone. To the school teacher it was more than interesting, it was phenomenal, and at the first sight of one she clutched her sister’s arm in wild alarm and told her to “look quick and see that wheel running away with a man.”

The good lady, if she is still alive, would see about 1,200 wheels “running away” with men and women, too, if she would pay Atlanta a visit today.

The growth of the bicycle “craze,” as some people insist on calling it, has been very healthy and fairly rapid in this city of late. From December 1st there have been nearly 500 new wheels sold in Atlanta. Of this number 400 are being ridden daily by Atlanta people. There are 1,200 wheels in daily use here, which is clear evidence that bicycling is beginning to be appreciated as a healthy and enjoyable sport.

Those who think that Atlanta is leading in this innovation, however, are mistaken. Atlanta is not so far behind other cities on the bicycle question as to be ashamed of her position, but she is by no means leading the van, not even in the south. Savannah, St. Augustine and New Orleans have become thoroughly imbued with the bicycle fever, and in proportion to population they are slightly ahead of Atlanta.

If Atlanta had as many bicycles in proportion to population as Washington, New York, Boston and Chicago there would be in the neighborhood of 10,000 wheels instead of 1,200.

A bicycle salesman, one who is thoroughly posted on the bicycle situation in every city in America, said yesterday that he believed the bicycle business in Atlanta was more promising today than ever.

“The people here have just come to the full appreciation of the merits of the wheel,” he said, “and I confidently expect to see 2,000 wheels in this city at the close of the season where there are only 1,200 now. The people people are practically unanimous in indorsing the sport and society has stamped with its approval the debated question: “Shall women ride?”

Good Roads for Bicyclists.

Peachtree street is the wheelman’s delight. Pryor street is satisfying to the most fastidious. Aside from these two thoroughfares Atlanta is deficient in bicycle paths, but the suburban roads afford excellent riding. Those who have ridden long enough to become inured to a good, long tour, find a spin out to Lithia Springs or Stone Mountain enjoyable. The roadways through and around Inman Park are good. The trip to Buckhead makes a pleasing run of fourteen miles. One of the favorite bicycle paths is along the old Peachtree road and great things are expected of the road to the barracks if the government will pass the appropriation for improving it.

At present there are no large bicycle clubs here. Small parties can be seen every morning and evening when the heat of the sun is not oppressive, spinning away to the suburbs. Tourist parties from northern and eastern cities often rent wheels for an afternoon to take a better look at the Gate City and its surroundings.

It is said that preliminary steps are being taken to organize a very large club of local wheelmen who will take regular tours every evening.

Scorching Habit Condemned.

The theory that every rose has its thorns applies with as much truth to bicycling here as elsewhere. The “Scorcher” is the bete noir of the beginner’s life. As Mr. B. F. Copeland, the manager of the riding school at the Gate City Guard’s armory said yesterday: “There is nothing which so retards the growth of bicycling in this city as scorching. It would not be a bad idea if the city council would pass an ordinance prohibiting great speed within the corporate limits.”

This has been done in nearly all of the larger cities. In New York the policemen who are stationed along th Boulevard are provided with bicycles for the purpose of arresting wheelmen who go faster than the law allows. The great bicycle path from Brooklyn to Coney Island, which is said to be the finest in the world, is always patrolled by policemen in knickerbockers, who can “scorch” most of the racers when it is necessary to make an arrest. In case they cannot catch a fast racer their shrill whistle causes the policeman ahead of him to mount his wheel and when Mr. Scorcher has distanced his first follower he finds himself in the clutches of the second or third, as the case may be. It is impossible to escape and yet is surprising how many bold wheelmen will attempt it. There are at least a dozen such captures on the Brooklyn bicycle path every Sunday.

Atlanta Policemen on Bicycles.

The ladies of Atlanta are the great enemies of the scorchers. They have begun a crusade to have the habit stopped and they are firm in their determination. The chances for a bicycle squad for the Atlanta police force are good. In case the city council passes an ordinance restricting the speed on Peachtree street it will be necessary to mount the policemen who patrol that thoroughfare on bicycles in order to prevent violations of the ordinance.

Where Beginners Learn To Ride.

One of the most interesting sights to be seen in Atlanta at this season is the classes of beginners at the Columbia Bicycle academy in the Gate City Guard’s armory. There is much to arouse the mirth of the visitors, but there is little of humor to the novices themselves except when they are resting and their friends are “going through the mill.”

The beginner as a rule has the look of a wild horse who suddenly sees the approach of a locomotive for the first time. There is a glare of fright and curiosity in the eyes, which is in strange contrast with the clinched teeth and the expression of “do or die” depicted in the tightly closed mouth. The best time to see the show is from 8 to 10 o’clock at night, when the business men are taking their first lessons. Awkwardness, timidity, assumed boldness, despair and uncertain hope are illustrated as well as they could possibly be by the actions and expressions of the “first nighters.” It must be seen to be appreciated. No description can give a fair idea./

The management of the school says that the ladies learn very much more easily than the men. They are less awkward. The ladies’ classes are from 8 a. m. to 1 p. m. and 2 p. m. to 6 p. m. The ladies are also given what are known as direct lessons. When they reach a certain point in advancement and gain a little confidence they are put in charge of an instructor and taught on the street. There are many expert graduates of the school among the lady riders of the city.

Major Fitten a Graceful Wheelman.

Major John A. Fitten is one of the city’s graceful wheelmen. This is true despite the major’s 265 pounds. He flits about with ease, notwithstanding that he is a heavy weight.

He learned at the wheeling school in the Grand. It took him some time, but he learned thoroughly. His school days were attended with many hard knocks and falls, but he pulled through without any broken limbs. He is now having a huge wheel of stout frame specially manufactured for himself and in a short time he will be spinning over the city’s by-paths on his trusty charger.

Major Fitten took his lessons at the school at the early hour of 6 o’clock in the morning. Rosy from a good night’s sleep he would hie himself to the school. He would mount the wheel with the courage of a Spartan and proceed to land himself violently upon the floor some twenty feet from the starting point. Nothing discouraged, he would spring to his feet nimbly, scurry upon his vehicle and hurry away again.

He had a great rival in the person of Colonel Thornton, who also tips the scales at 265 pounds. They took lessons together and had many an exciting encounter. Their antics were the talk of the school and every pupil felt a deep personal interest in the outcome of their studies. They both graduated about the same time are now vieing with each other in the ease and grace with which they spin across the country.

The teacher, Mr. Copeland, also taught Speaker Tom Reed the mysteries of the wheel. This occurred last spring and it was not an easy task. The speaker weighs 295 pounds and he is not unlike Major Fitten in physical build. “Major Fitten is much more more agile,” said Mr. Copeland yesterday, “and handles himself much better. He learned much faster.”

Smashes a Wheel.

Jim McKeldin is one of the city’s enthusiasts. He has been riding a beautiful $125 wheel of which he is immensely proud. He was out on the asphalt with a party a few nights ago and met Major Fitten.

“You don’t know the first thing about riding,” said the major scornfully.

“I don’t, eh?” said Mr. McKeldin; “suppose you try it.” He hopped off his wheel. “Here, get up, major, and give us a lesson,” he said.

The major held back modestly. “Oh come on,” said Mr. McKeldin.

“Well, here goes,” said the major, and he made a leap for the saddle. The wheel shot gracefully forward. The pedals responded easily to the major’s expert touch. He went sailing down the asphalt as graceful as a fairy.

There was a sudden crash, and looking, Mr. McKeldin saw his wheel sink into utter ruin and collapse beneath the major’s portly form. It was not an ordinary collapse. It was an extraordinary one. The wheel did not simply break in part. It broke all to pieces, into hundreds of pieces. The seat was mashed as flat as one of Aunt Jemima’s pancakes, and the wires of the wheels were twisted into a million shapes. It was hard to tell whether it was the remains of a bicycle or a dynamo. There was no semblance of a wheel left.

Isham Daniel’s Ride.

Although Mr. Isham Daniel has laid strict injunction upon his companion not to repeat the story, it has gained general currency and I will repeat it here-the story of Isham Daniel’s swift and disastrous ride.

He took to the wheel gingerly. He did not enter into it with that conquer in-a-minute-or-die spirit. He was patient. He lacked confidence, and he wanted room. He did not like to ride on a street on which there were any other moving objects, and he always avoided cars. Cars were his pet fear.

He went out with Jim McKeldin the other afternoon late. He paced along carefully until Wilson avenue was reached. It’s a fine drop for the wheelmen down Wilson avenue to the expostion gate.

“Go it, Isham, I’ll follow,” said McKeldin.

Mr. Daniel moved forward slowly at first, his wheel gaining in celerity as he went. Presently it was moving at furious speed and the rider found his feet off the pedals and himself unable to regain control of the mad steed. At this juncture a car loomed into view, coming toward him in front. He knew for a certainty that collision with that car was inevitable. The thirty feet of space that he had on his side of the track was far too narrow to allow him to pass in safety. There was but one thing to do; he would dash into the sidewalk.

It was a startling spectacle that Mr. McKeldin looked down upon. He saw his comrade swerve violently to the right and with the force of a steam engine dash into the high curbing. The wheel stopped with a crash and was dashed to pieces, and the force of the collision lifted Mr. Daniel from his seat and planted him over in the vacant lot. He got up unhurt, glad to sacrifice a wheel as the price of his own life.

And There Are Others.

Mr. Thomas C. Erwin is also a victim of the freaks of the wheel. He was hurled from his, near Fort McPherson, last Sunday, and skated along the road on his face for a considerable distance. The experience was very damaging to the smooth contour of his face.

And there are others who are wearing bandages, poultices and plaster casts. The percentage of accidents is naturally high, considering the large number or riders there are in Atlanta. None of the sufferers from the wheel have given up, however. They are waiting to get well, when they will ride again.


The Constitution: Atlanta, Ga. Sunday, February 2, 1896.

Plan To Encircle the City with a Magnificent Boulevard, Touching All the Resorts.


Over Two-Thirds of the Road Necessary Already Exists and Is in the Best of Condition.


The Plan Would Afford the City What It Has Not at Present, a Grand Driveway Over a Picturesque Course.

Atlanta, a city of drivers, driving clubs, mettlesome teams, glossy turnouts and inviting suburbs, is almost without drives.

The city is environed with lovely scenery. Fresh hills of green, softly carpeted fields and cool, inviting valleys begirt the city. Nature has done her best to please the eye. Her canvas is perfect. And our people have done much to improve it in the way of development. Beautiful homes have been set about in pretty nooks, just close enough to the city to enjoy its benefits and far enough away to escape its smoke, its dust and its disagreeable features. These homes are delightful to live in and charming to look upon, and there is but one objectionable feature connected with them. There are no smooth, inviting drives leading to them.

Yet all around the city, forming almost a complete circle, are bits and pieces of excellent roads which, with a little work, could be linked together, forming a magnificent driveway about the city and touching all the lovely points.

Not only would this splendid chain of boulevards encircle the city and form one of the most beautiful  and magnificent drives to be found in the south, but it would link together the pretty parks that stand on every side of the city.

The city is environed with inviting breathing spots—places where nature has been lavish with her gifts and where beautiful scenery and landscape have reveled. To the northeast is Piedmont park, with its hills, its groves, its lovely buildings, its beautiful lake and splendid surroundings. It is connected with the heart of the city by Peachtree street, a direct route, which, with its splendid asphalt and chert, forms one of the very few select drives in the city or about it.

Peachtree street is all that could be asked of it in the way of beauty and improvement, yet on pretty afternoons when the air is full of tonic and the sun shins caressingly it is too greatly crowded to admit of any sort of comfort. Elegant equipages bowling along almost choke up passage and frequently traffic is impeded. The crowded condition of this, the city’s choicest drive, argues the crying need of more good thoroughfares suitable for driving.

It is just a step from Piedmont park to Grant park, but so poorly are the streets laid out that it never occurs to any one to take in the two parks in an afternoon’s drive, and yet it could easily be done with just a little work. The broad boulevard which stretches along the eastern limit of the city is an almost direct route from Piedmont park to Grant park. It touches Piedmont park on the eastern margin and stretches away to the south, running along the eastern side of Grant park. It is wide, well paved all the way and traverses a beautiful section of the city—a section that is just springing into life. New residences are going up all along the boulevard and new streets are being cut into it at regular intervals on the east and west.

Only a Slight Change Needed.

It is an almost direct line between the two parks, as stated, but it deflects slightly when the Georgia railroad and the Southern railroad are reached at Decatur street. North Boulevard cuts into the latter street just in front of the big bag factory of Elsas, May & Co. Owing to the physical nature of the ground hereabout it was impossible to effect a direct crossing and because of this fact the only deflection in the big, wide boulevard occurs here. It is not a serious objection by any means, however. The railroads can be easily crossed, the street skirting the eastern edge of Oakland can be opened out and put in condition and made to connect the North and South Boulevards. It will have to be improved a distance of about two blocks only to make the connection complete.

South Boulevard, which would thus be reached, is wide, spacious, well paved and marks a lovely course. It is but a short distance along it to Grant park and Little Switzerland. The route is a beautiful and inviting one and one that is always a pleasure to drive over.

The park reached, there are many circuitous drives winding through it that tempt the driver. The drive through Little Switzerland, the drive to McPherson’s monument, the drive around pretty Lake Abana and the many other shaded thoroughfares in the park offer a world of pleasure to the driver.

Leaving Grant park after coursing over as many of the beautiful drives within it boundaries as pleases the fancy of the driver, Georgia avenue affords a splendid outlet to the west. Here again is an unusually wide thoroughfare, well paved and leading from east to west through the southernmost part of the city. It goes in a direct line with scarcely a crook or turn. It is open straight through from Grant park to McDaniel street, which is within a block and a half of the East Tennessee railroad track.

A distance of one-fourth of a mile lies between the end of this avenue  and the Whitehall street crossing at West End. The proposition to cut Georgia avenue through in this direction to a point from which connection with Whitehall street at the crossing could easily be made has frequently been discussed by the county commissioners. It is a small piece of work, and President Collier says that it would be a matter of small labor to open it through, thus connecting that part of the city west of the Tennessee railroad and West End with the eastern part of the city. This of itself would be an improvement that would be welcomed by all the residents in that vicinity.

This avenue opened, an easy outlet to West End would be afforded and the last year’s project of the county commissioners to construct a new fifty-foot road from a point just south of the Whitehall street railroad crossing to Fort McPherson would be an easy matter to carry out. For some months the county commissioners have worked on this favorite project. Their plan was to construct the road on the east side of the Central railroad and parallel to the railroad tracks to Fort McPherson. The route proposed is some distance from the railroad track and would be perfectly safe so far as trains frightening horses is concerned.

Right of Way Secured.

The route for this road was laid out early last year and it passed through a stretch of country that is perfectly beautiful. It is magnificently wooded and lovely new homes are dotted all about. The commissioners mapped out the route and went so far as to secure the right of way. They were successful in the latter point, securing the consent of all the property owners along the route for the construction of the road.

A more inviting route could not be found anywhere around the city. It is comparatively level, and with a little grading could be made into an ideal drive.

A driveway to Fort McPherson has long been wanted by those of our citizens who drive. The fort is quite a popular and interesting place with our people, and at present it can only be reached by the hilly dirt road that runs along the railroad track. The constantly passing trains render this very dangerous to drivers and the need of a driveway removed from the railroad track has long been felt. It was in recognition of this need that the county commissioners took up the matter. They laid out their route, and, as stated, secured the right of way, but for some unknown reason dropped the matter. It seems that all the commissioners favored the project and wanted to see the road built with comparatively little cost to the county. The grading was to be done by the county convicts, of course, and would have been a matter of ony a few weeks.

The plan of the commissioners contemplated a bridge over the railroad just north of Fort McPherson station, thus obviating the danger of grade crossing. This bridge would be erected almost in front of the entrance to the fort and would be highly convenient.

This part of the road can be constructed with little delay and trouble. It will meet a requirement which has long been felt and will afford the city a drive such as is to be found nowhere about the city at present.

Returning from the fort it is proposed to construct a road along the western side of the railroad tracks at about the same distance from the tracks as the road going out. This road, like the other, could be made with little expense. The country through which it would pass is very level and very little grading would be required. A delightful drive to West End would thus be formed. This road would terminate at Ashby street, which thoroughfare is already open to within short distance of the new waterworks reservoir park. Ashby street is a magnificent drive, covering a distance of about two miles to the reservoir and passing through all the picturesque section on the west of the city. Much that would be new and interesting to our people would be presented by a spin over this new thoroughfare, which is already in condition for travel.

An Attractive Resort.

The new waterworks reservoir park is one of the most attractive points for drives around the city. With a little expenditure of money this could be made one of the most beautiful parks in the south. Its natural advantages are unsurpassed. In summer it is ideal. It is walled in with lovely hills, crested with green trees and the picture is one that enchants the eye. In summer it is a favorite drive with our people, although little or nothing has been done to beautify it or make it attractive. With Ashby street opened through to the reservoir, its popularity would equal that of any drive in the state. Ashby street is already opened within a third of a mile of the reservoir and but little work would be required to complete the avenue to the big pond.

From the reservoir to Piedmont park is but a step and the connection could be easily made. The distance is about a mile, and already a route between the two points has been proposed. Those who have considered the matter propose to extend Wilson avenue directly through to the reservoir. The route is direct and has already been surveyed.

The county commissioners took up the matter several weeks ago. At that time they decided to make the extension at once and the work was passed up by the commissioners and ordered done. It is among the improvements of the near future and will be made as soon as the county convicts can reach it.

The improvement will be a great boon to the city’s drives. It will open up a direct avenue from the reservoir to the entrance to Piedmont park. It will be a favorite drive with the members of the driving club. It is convenient to them and will offer many attractions delightful to the driver.

Complete Circuit of the City.

This completes the circuit of the city, presenting a continuous boulevard around the city, touching at all attractive points. Starting at Piedmont park, a spot frequented by all Atlantans and where the driving club is located, it passes Ponce de Leon, Grant park, Little Switzerland, Fort McPherson, West End, Waterworks park, returning to Piedmont park, the starting point. This makes a drive of about eleven miles in length and presents a spectacle of beautiful and varied scenery, as grand as can be furnished anywhere in the city. This reform could be accomplished with little work. Two-thirds of the road is already in existence, and all that is needed is the building of some short bits of road to connect the boulevard already open to travel. The county commissioners could do the work with convicts and the cost would be merely nominal. It would be, too, but a matter of a short time. There are 227 convicts in the county’s service and it would take them but a few weeks to make the connections proposed. Compared to the great benefits that would be derived, the cost is nothing.

The two drives would not be the only ones to reap the benefit from the extension of the roads suggested. It would link the city’s parks together and afford easy access from one to the other for all the people. The wheelmen wold also be great gainers by the change. It would be a pleasant spurt for them to encircle the city in a morning’s or late afternoon’s ride.

The accompanying map shows the proposed route of the park boulevard. It will be seen at a glance that it makes a complete circuit of the city and leaves out no point of interest on the way. The route is replete with interest and presents many attractions. It will also be seen that with a little work Atlanta might have a magnificnet drive by cutting the city in half. Peachtree and Pryor streets with their pavements of vitrified brick and asphalt and chert extend through the city from one side to the other, passing right through the heart of the town. For over a mile beyond Wilson avenue Peachtree has been paved with chert. This gives a smooth drive of about three miles from the utmost limit of the chert to the Capital City club. To continue this paving through to the point where the vitrified brick paving begins on Pryor street would be but natural and desirable. Only about six blocks would have to be paved to connect the two. Then an unbroken drive of over seven miles would be presented. Pryor street has been opened by the county commissioners to within two hundred yards of the old waterworks property and the drive is a beautiful and picturesque one.

A Spin Around Town.

A spin from the point on Peachtree to the old waterworks property, over a surface of chert, asphalt and vitrified brick would be a godsend to our drivers. Some day this will be possible; in fact, there is already a strong feeling in favor of the paving of the short space that divides the good paving on the two streets.

City Engineer Clayton has long been a hearty advocate of the plan to circle the city about with a continuous boulevard. He has made a study of the question and states that it could be done by the county convicts with little cost. He knows the topography of the country thoroughly and is well acquainted with the difficulties that would be encountered. When he was asked about the project he expressed himself as being in favor of it.

“With the boulevard built around the city,” he said, “our system of parks and boulevards would be equal to that of Chicago. Very few of our citizens realize what splendid advantages we have in the way of parks. With the expenditure of a little money and care our parks could be magnificently developed. I am in favor of the boulevard about the city and hope to see it constructed.”

President Collier, of the county commissioners, was most favorable impressed with the proposition when it was presented to him.

He said it seemed altogether feasible and could be done by the county convicts. He talked at length on the proposition, and was inclined to believe that it would be a great thing for the city, county and the driving public.


What Dr. Alexander and Dr. Baird Say.

A Talk with Mr. Candler—Rapid Increase of Consumption—Nearly Half a Million Glasses in Atlanta.

A great deal of interest was aroused by two short articles in The Constitution last week. One was a brief interview with a gentleman who said that persons using coca-cola were in danger of forming the cocaine habit had resulted from the use of that beverage. He further said in his card that a gallon of coca-cola contained the extract of only a half ounce of coca leaves, and no sensible man would undertake to say that this quantity in a gallon would hurt a person taking a glass of the beverage.

Mr. Candler was called on at his office yesterday, and when the matter was mentioned, said:

“I am having an analysis of coca-cola made by one of the best experts in the country. I have also asked for the opinion of of the best cocaine expert in the United States on the preparation known as coca-cola. I have offered to give up my business if it could be shown that a single case of the cocaine habit has been contracted from using coca-cola. If I thought it could possibly hurt anybody I would quit the manufacture of coca-cola instantly, although it is the whole of my business. When I get the analysis of coca.cola and the opinion of the cocaine expert, I shall publish them. In the meantime I suggest that you ask Dr. J. M. Alexander what he thinks of coca-cola. He has been using it for some time. I never heard him express his opinion, but I am wiling to risk it.

“I suppose there is not another manufacturer who states the composition of his compound more plainly than I do. Here is what I say in the pamphlets which I distribute everywhere:

Coca-cola is not simply a nice flavored syrup, but contains, in a remarkable degree, the tonic properties of the wonderful Erythroxylon coca plant of South America, which has a world-wide reputation of sustaing the vital power under conditions of extraordinary fatigue, and affords prompt relief for mental and physical exhaustion, or nervous prostration. It also has the stimulating, enlivening, reviving properties of the extract from the celebrated African cola nut. This forms the choicest, most desirable and efficacious remedial combination possible.

Coca-cola renews the vigor of the intellect, rendering the flow of thought more easy and the reasoning power more vigorous; it conduces to mental clearness and activity, freedom from fatigue and power of endurance.

It has gained an enviable reputation, and has taken position at the very front of the leading and popular soda fountain beverages.

The hearty, emphatic and voluntary testimonials contained in this book afford convincing proof that the Atlanta enthusiasm has been contagious and boundless, and is rapidly spreading all over the country.

Coca-cola is making large strides in all directions, reaching out into new fieds and acquiring great popularity where it had befere been unknown.

Its reputation has been fully established everywhere as a remarkable seller, summer and winter, north and south.

We have the facts and figures to show that millions are using coca-cola, and while we cannot produce their individual testimony, the only logical conclusion is that they drink it for the beneficial and agreeable results obtained.

The following pages contain a few of the many valued endorsements from prominent physicians, pharmacists and others “who know whereof they speak.”

Among the certificates referred to in the book the most important is this:

ATLANTA, Ga., January 1, 1891.—Dear Sir: The sale of coca-cola at my fountain for 1889 amounted to (…) gallons. For the year 1890 we dispensed 1,052 gallons, an average of eighty-six gallons per month for the entire year. It is now a well-known fact that my soda fountain business is larger than that of any fountain in the southern states outside of New Orleans.

The magnitude of my business has been very greatly increased by the acquisition of a large number of customers who drink coca-cola for the tonic properties which no other soda fountain drink contains. Another valuable feature about it is the great winter demand. While the early frost freeze out the other fancy drinks the demand for coca-cola holds good all through the year. Yours truly,


The following statement of coca-cola consumed in Atlanta shows how the beverage has grown in favor:

				No.Glasses  Year's
		     Gallons. 1 oz.5 cts. Receipts.
W.F. Venable		1,032	132,096	  $6,604 80
J.H. Nunnally		  677	 86,656	   4,332 80
Beermann & Silverman. 	  427	 54,656	   2,732 80
Elkin-Watson Drug Co. 	  376	 48,128	   2,406 40
C. O. Tyner	      	  336	 43,008    2,150 40
John Venable		  245	 31,360    1,568 00
Benjamin & Cronheim	  165	 21,120	   1,056 00
S. L. Phillips & Co.	  154	 19,712	     985 60
Other fountains		   88	 11,264	     563 20
			-----	 ------	  ---------
	Totals		3,500	448,000	 $22,400 00

What Dr. Alexander Says.

When Dr. Alexander was asked what he though of cocacola, he said:

“As prepared and sold here, it is perfectly harmless. I use it regularly, and find it has a delightful effect when I am tired. It is a mild, nervous stimulant.

“The soldiers in India eat coca leaves on the march, and it enables them to endure long marches without fatigue. It also enables men to go for some time without food.

“Fourteen gallons of anything would be injurious, but a glass of coca-cola occasionally would not hurt anybody.”

Dr. Baird, of the board of health, was asked over the telephone what he thought of coca cola:

“I don’t know anything about it; I have no idea what it contains,” he replied.

“Mr. Candler says a gallon contains the extract of a half ounce of coca leaves.”

“Oh,” said Dr. Baird, “I don’t think there is any harm in the coca leaves. That quantity would not injure anybody. I think the principle is something like tea. It is a kind of stimulant.”

A Card from Mr. Candler.

The Constitution, Atlanta, GA, Saturday, June, 13, 1891.

EDITOR CONSTITUTION: There appears in the columns of your paper this morning a notice of “coca-cola,” a preparation which I have been manufacturing and selling largely in this and other communities, for the past three years, as a soda fountain beverage, to the principal dealers, who have dispensed it to the very best people in the community which they serve. For nearly twenty years I have lived in Atlanta and been known prominently as a druggist. Among the citizens of this place I think I have a great many warm friends to whom I can refer for endorsement; that I have endeavored to live above reproach, never manifesting a desire to build up my own interests at the expense of theirs.

As to coca-cola, if your “thoughtful citizen” will find one person in all this country who is a cocaine user by reason of having drank coca-cola, then I plead guilty to their charges. In a pamphlet which I issue and distribute at much expense, I plainly state that among a great many other things which enter into its composition we use coca leaves. I have no objections to stating just here that one gallon of coca-cala syrup, which makes 128 glasses, as dispensed from the fountains, contains one-half ounce of green coca leaves, which are treated with hot water.

If your thoughtful citizen and prominent physician have got as much sense as they lack regard for correct speaking, they can readily see that a gallon of this syrup would not produce any decided effects attributable to cocaine.

Without any investigation as to who is using coca-cola I feel confident that I can truthfully say that every prominent minister, a number of our most skilled physicians together with nine-tenths of the business men, including all professions, are and have been for a least three years constant patrons of coca cola. Because a man once tries it and finds it to be a prompt restorer of his energies and goes back and gets it again and again should not be an argument against its use any more than against the recall of our family physician who restores to life and health the members of our family. That some people use too much of it, is not its fault nor mine, but I have yet to hear of a single case having been injured thereby. The popularity of the beverage is caused as much by the judicious advertising that has been done for it as by its own genuine merits.

We trust that as you have doubtless carelessly permitted the attack to be made, you will as carefully insert this plain statement of my side of the case. Respectfully,